Today the PowerShell team announced the release of version 5.1 of the Windows Management Framework, for most people better known as PowerShell 5.1. This is a reminder that currently no version of Exchange Server supports a newer version of WMF than the version that was released with the operating system. As always when it comes to supportability questions, the Exchange Server Supportability Matrix is a valuable resource.
Even for Exchange Server 2016 installed on Windows Server 2016, the supported version of WMF is 5.0 because this is the version that was released with the operating system release.
Strictly speaking the same limitation applies to a remote management computer too, but I am not aware of any issues with running a newer version of Remote PowerShell against Exchange on an operating system with an older version of WMF. But be aware of the supportability limitations around WMF and PowerShell.